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As part of this policy several training colleges were established
under disciples of Pestalozzi, in which a three-years' course of
training was given to those purposing to become primary teachers.
A very valuable outcome of this was the remarkable development
of educational theory, mainly, and for a time exclusively, based
on the pedagogical doctrines of Herbart,


Herbart (1776-1841) occupies an almost unique place among
educational philosophers in that he was at once an educator and
a philosopher. His way of looking at educational problems was
consequently not a merely theoretical deduction from his philo-
sophy, but wras grounded on both philosophy and experience.
" The book/' he says, speaking of his chief work on pedagogy,
" owes its existence almost as much to the little collection of
carefully arranged observations and experiments which I have
gathered together on various occasions as it does to my philo-
sophy."* In view of this it is necessary to know the main facts
of the life experience out of which both philosophical and
educational theories issued.

He was born at Oldenburg in 1776. After a good education in
classics and philosophy, in which he showed exceptional and
precocious ability,' he entered the university of Jena at the age of
eighteen. There he came under the spell of Fichte, and the
idealistic philosophy. But idealism did not satisfy him long, and
before he had left Jena at the age of twenty-one he had taken his
stand in definite opposition to it. From 1797 till 1809 his life
moved on its own course in seeming indifference to the great
events which were then convulsing Germany and Europe. For
three years he acted as private tutor to three boys, aged eight, ten
and fourteen, and laid the foundations of his educational theory
by a careful analysis of his experience with them. In the year
this work came to an end he visited Pdstalozzi at Burgdorf, and
made an appreciative study of his aim and methods. The results
of this appeared in his first writings on education: Pestalozzi*$
Idea of an A B C of Sense-Impression (Anschauung), published in
1802, and The ^Esthetic Presentation of the World as the Chief
* Felkins, Herbart*$ Science of Education, p. 251.